Chapter V

Post World War II

 

There is no nation, it seems, which is not being promised the whole earth.-   Elias Canfetti

The world’s view of war was changed forever on July 16, 1945. On that day in Alamogordo, New Mexico, America exploded the world's first atomic bomb, sending a huge mushroom-shaped cloud high into the sky.

The Manhattan Project, the code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb, was led primarily by German and German-Jewish scientists who had escaped from Adolf Hitler’s Germany. It was named for the Manhattan Engineer District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, because much of the early research was done in New York City. Sparked by refugee physicists in the United States, the program was slowly organized after nuclear fission was discovered by German scientists in 1938, and many U.S. scientists expressed the fear that Hitler would attempt to build a fission bomb.

In 1939, an American university professor named Albert Einstein (1879-1955) wrote a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt outlining the possibility of using a nuclear chain reaction for a bomb. After reading the letter, Roosevelt began the Manhattan Project in 1943. Only a few people knew of the project. Einstein later regretted his letter to Roosevelt, but he feared the Nazis would develop an atomic weapon and use it on America. Many scientific and military people involved in developing the bomb did not want it to be used, feeling it was immoral.

The program was first under the leadership of Vannevar Bush (1890-1974), head of the National Defense Research Committee and the Office of Scientific Research and Development; and later under General Leslie Groves (1896-1970) of the Army Corps of Engineers. Groves immediately purchased a site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee for facilities to separate the necessary uranium 235 from the much more common uranium 238, and he consolidated the research done in many East Coast universities under the direction of Arthur Compton (1892-1962) at the University of Chicago. He also appointed  German theoretical physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967) as director of the weapons laboratory built on an isolated mesa at Los Alamos, New Mexico. After much difficulty, a porous barrier suitable for separating isotopes of uranium was developed and installed in the Oak Ridge gaseous diffusion plant. Finally, in 1945, uranium 235 of bomb purity was shipped to Los Alamos, where it was fashioned into a gun-type weapon. In a barrel, one piece of uranium was fired at another, together forming a supercritical, explosive mass.

On August 6 and August 9, 1945, American planes dropped one atomic bomb each on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first bomb destroyed 80 percent of Hiroshima’s buildings and killed about 80,000 people. The second bomb killed about 35,000 people. Japan surrendered to America after Nagasaki, but the people of Japan suffered failing health and horrible deaths for years afterward because of the effects of atomic radiation.

Controversy still rages on the "necessity" of destroying Hiroshima and Nagasaki with atomic bombs that killed more than a hundred thousand people and wounded nearly as many. The atomic bomb did not win the war in the Pacific; at best, it hastened Japanese acceptance of a defeat that was viewed as inevitable. Advocates of the bombing claimed, however, that invasion of the Japanese home islands would otherwise have been required, producing untold carnage. Those opposed, among whom were many of the scientists involved in developing the bombs, argued in retrospect that the United States' use of the atomic bomb may have been the first act of the Cold War.

In any event, the incidents at Hiroshima and Nagasaki had dire consequences for our planet. The Manhattan Project was an example of absolute idiocy. This unleashed universal energy not only endangered our two human rights — life itself and a planet on which to live on — but also endangered nearby neighbors in our universe.

So it was that in 1947, two years after the explosions and scene of the mushroom clouds over the cities of Japan, neighbors in our universe, concerned with the evolving reptilian minded-ness of our planet’s human population, began to monitor our behavior. (We will discuss this still much-discussed incident at Roswell, New Mexico later in this chapter.) With atomic weaponry, we had reached a point in our evolution where fighting and warring had quantum-leaped to potential annihilation of our life plasm and the planet itself.

This desperate act by the U.S. government, justified by the need to end the war in the Pacific and thus save millions of lives, did not take into account the dire consequences that could — and did — follow. Not only were the atheistic scientists involved in the Manhattan Project fearful of a worldwide catastrophe prior to the detonation of the first device in New Mexico, but they were also patently aware that it would be impossible to contain the immediate radiation fallout from such explosions, much less safely store residual nuclear waste. Still, they forged ahead toward a godless and reckless plunge into the unknown. This single act will go down in our planet’s future history as the culminating point of absolute insanity, developed out of man's savage need to conquer his fellow man.

Now let us take a look at the post-war United States. Flush with the success of defeating the Axis powers in Europe and the Pacific, the United States had emerged by the late 1940s both financially and militarily as a super power. The industrial and military machinery of this nation was in an embryo stage. It would require wise leadership to prevent the industrial military complex, representing capitalism on the one hand and the emerging social democracy on the other hand, to reverse this hallowed position.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890-1969) alluded to the problem when he referred to the emerging “industrial military complex” in the 1950s.

This ideological conflict waged from opposite sides of the political spectrum would become known as the “right” and “left” of politics. Both of these ideologies are grossly flawed, and each cling tenaciously to the delusion of national sovereignty. On the “right” are the proponents of capitalism fueled by greed and power-lust. On the “left” are the proponents of socialism, fueled by jealousy and hate. Both are firmly rooted in secularism, materialism, and atheistic science. Both maintain their political positions drawing heavily on knowledge but utterly lacking the wisdom of history and experience. As we view the chapters of the latter part of the twentieth century, the reader will easily recognize this fallacy.

The “right” and “left” of western political life during the balance of the century would experience the ebb and flow of populist thinking as the citizens, confused by fear of a potential nuclear threat, gave their power away to unwise politicians. This apathy would prove to be almost suicidal. We must always remember that representative government and their agencies are fallible — they are just people — and they can never replace God. That is why a global government, at this point in time, is a recipe for disaster. Before a global government can ever become a just and wise course, there must first be a power beyond our imagination capable of creating the circumstances whereby religious and political sovereignty have been surrendered to God as the supreme sovereign. This unimagined power has been prophesied in all religions and is expected at the "end of the age." Many believe that this new age will coincide with the first part of the third millennium. Christianity has expectantly awaited this event for each of the 2,000 years since Jesus walked among men.

Whether this comes to pass sooner or later, we as mortals must strive to find common ground between not only the dominant global powers but all nations, so that a framework for a future just and righteous global government will be in place. Unless we accomplish this goal, we will continue to experience wars and rumors of wars, as the strong and powerful sovereign nations rub shoulders with only oceans separating them. Nations with power agendas cannot rub shoulders without generating conflicts and eventuating wars. Nations that view other nations as a means toward an end — whether that end is richer oil fields or a source of cheap labor — will always pose a threat to peace.

A Cosmic Watergate

A mysterious crash, dead extraterrestrials littering the landscape, a government cover-up. The incident that occurred near Roswell, New Mexico, on June 14, 1947, is an elaborate tale, growing ever more so with time and mythic imagination. Although the Roswell Incident seems the most spectacular flying-saucer story, the phenomenon goes far beyond the small desert town.

On the day W. W. (“Mac”) Brazel chanced upon the strange debris (June 14, 1947), he was making his rounds at the J. B. Foster sheep ranch, 85 miles northwest of Roswell. The wreckage was strewn over a 200-yard area and consisted largely of rubber strips, tin foil, wood sticks, Scotch tape, other tape decorated with a floral design and what the rancher described as a rather tough paper.

Ten days after Brazel's chance discovery, Boise business man and trained pilot Kenneth Arnold was flying near Washington state’s Cascade Mountains when he spotted what he described as nine disk-like objects flying in formation at about 1,200 mph. It was Arnold’s report that led to widespread use of the term “flying saucer.” His story immediately gave rise to other sightings. By July 4, newspapers were reporting literally hundreds of stories of “flying saucers” in skies across the nation. Arnold’s report has held up to 50 years of scrutiny as a puzzling but excellent sighting.

Rancher Brazel, who had no radio in his shack, was not aware of the sightings until July 5. He heard about the saucers when he drove to a nearby town. By then, Brazel later told the Roswell Daily Record, he had already returned to the littered field with his wife and two children, gathered the debris, and taken it home. On July 7, while in Roswell, he reported to the sheriff that he might have found a flying disk. Sheriff George Wilcox immediately phoned nearby Roswell Army Air Field, home of the 509th Bomb Group, and notified Major Jesse Marcel, the group intelligence officer. Marcel, hardly able to control his excitement, went to Brazel to collect the debris.

A July 8 press release issued by the Roswell Army Air Field caused quite a sensation: “RAAF Captures Flying Saucer on Ranch in Roswell Region,” proclaimed the Roswell Daily Record. Word of the discovery quickly spread and press inquiries came in from all over the world.

The excitement did not last, however. At 8th Air Force headquarters on the same night, Brigadier General Roger Ramey, consulted with his weather forecaster, Warrant Officer Irving Newton, then called in the local press. He announced that the debris was nothing more than the remnants of a high-altitude weather balloon. The sticks and tin foil, he explained, were from a reflector used to track the balloon by radar. The next day, under the headline "General Ramey Empties Roswell Saucer,"  the Daily Record reported his retraction and explanation. Tranquillity returned to Roswell, and more than three decades would pass before any more excitement was stirred.

It was in 1978 that Stanton Friedman, a former itinerant nuclear physicist who describes himself as “a clear-cut, unambiguous UFOlogist,” met up with Jesse Marcel, long retired from the Air Force and living nearby. After quizzing Marcel, who still believed the debris he retrieved was extraterrestrial, Friedman reviewed the old stories about Roswell, painstakingly sought out and interviewed other witnesses, and came to a dramatic conclusion: there had been a cover-up of “cosmic Watergate” proportions. His research and conclusions became the basis of the 1980 book  The Roswell Incident, co-written by Charles Berlitz (author of The Bermuda Triangle) and UFO investigator William Moore. Its publication put Roswell back on the map.

Mentioned briefly in the book was a yarn told secondhand to Friedman by a couple who attended one of his lectures in 1972. They claimed that a friend, now dead, had told them about coming upon a crashed saucer in 1947 on the Plains of San Augustin, New Mexico, about 150 miles west of the Foster ranch. Before being shooed away by military police, he claimed, he had spotted several small bodies strewn nearby. Since the story had no apparent connection to Roswell and was given scant credence by Friedman and the authors, it was generally ignored. Yet it was the UFO era’s first mention of alien casualties.

In 1988, responding to the continuing speculation about Roswell, the Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS) in Chicago sponsored a team to seek out the crash site, recover any remaining debris and interview surviving “witnesses.” Three years later, the key members of that team, science-fiction author Kevin Randle and CUFOS investigator Don Schmitt, published their conclusions in the book UFO Crash at Roswell. In addition to recovering a UFO at Roswell, they charged, the government had found and spirited away the remnants of its crew: several small alien bodies.

Randle and Schmitt reinforced their findings with accounts by Roswell witnesses, some of whom had earlier been interviewed by Friedman. The most notable of their sources was Glenn Dennis, who had been a mortician in 1947. According to Dennis, he had received inquiries from the air base that July about the availability of child-size coffins and procedures for embalming bodies that had been exposed to the elements.

Even more intriguing, he claimed that he had seen strange activity at the base hospital early in July and had been ordered to leave after encountering a hysterical Army nurse, who later told him she had aided doctors performing autopsies on strange-looking, small bodies. The nurse, he added, had sworn him to secrecy and had been transferred to
England, flown out of the base shortly after they spoke. Later, he said, he heard that she had been killed in a plane crash.

Friedman's interest in UFOs landed him a deal as adviser for a 1989 episode of a television series dealing with the Roswell crash. One viewer of the episode, Gerald Anderson, called the show and said the re-enactment of the event was inaccurate. For one thing, he said, the shape of the crashed spacecraft was wrong. He explained he had been a witness, thus knew this firsthand.

Friedman saw this as confirmation of the incident at Roswell. He arranged to have John Carpenter, a Springfield therapist, interview Anderson. Carpenter, who also directed investigations for the local chapter of MUFON, the Mutual UFO Network, conducted several sessions with Anderson, often using hypnosis, presumably to help him recover buried memories of the event. Anderson later reported to the local newspaper: “We all went up…to it [a large silver disk]. There were three creatures, three bodies, lying on the ground underneath this thing in the shade. Two weren't moving, and the third one obviously was having trouble breathing, like when you have broken ribs. There was a fourth one [that]...apparently had been giving first aid to the others.” Soon after, Anderson claimed, the military arrived, moving the civilians away from the site and ordering everyone to forget what they had seen.

Armed with his new evidence, Friedman and UFO researcher Don Berliner co-authored their own book, Crash at Corona, in 1992. In this book, they concluded the government recovered not one but two saucers in July 1947, along with seven dead extraterrestrials and one that was still alive. The first craft, they claimed, crashed near Corona after some kind of midair accident that showered debris on the Foster ranch. And the second, they wrote, was surely the one Anderson saw.

In a 1994 sequel, The Truth About the UFO Crash at Roswell, Randle and Schmitt introduced more witnesses. One was Roswell resident who maintained he was part of a military contingent that had searched for a crashed saucer and, 40 miles south of the Foster sheep ranch, had discovered a craft shaped like a plane fuselage, its nose buried in a sandy hill. Through a cracked section, he saw several small bodies.

Another story was told by a resident of Carlsbad, New Mexico. He alleged that he and a woman friend had been camping in an area north of Roswell during the July 4 weekend in 1947 and they  saw an object flash overhead and crash not far away. Seeking out the wreck, he said, they discovered a crashed saucer and, using a flashlight, spotted several little corpses. They returned in the morning to get a better look but beat a hasty retreat when they saw a military convoy approaching.

Minutes of an Air Force Scientific Advisory Board meeting on March 17, 1948, quote Colonel Howard McCoy, then chief of intelligence at what is now the Wright Patterson Air Force Base (where the bodies and debris were supposedly shipped) as saying, “We are running down every [UFO] report. I can't even tell you how much we would give to have one of these crash in an area so that we could recover whatever they are.”

More recently, UFO investigators have focused on a series of sightings reported in Arizona. Dozens of observers, scattered across 100 miles, reported seeing a cluster of lights moving rapidly across the night sky. The Arizona incident stands as “perhaps the most dramatic UFO sighting that has been reported to the National UFO Reporting Center” over the past few years, says the Seattle-based center’s director, Peter Davenport. Davenport also gathered reports of a similar cluster of lights passing over a wide area of Texas.

The Roswell controversy continues today and Washington has been under increasing pressure to resolve it. At the urging of New Mexico Representative Steven Schiff, who complained about a government “cover-up” of Roswell and the “runaround” he was getting from the Pentagon, the General Accounting Office announced in January 1994 that it would launch a hunt for any documents related to the incident.

Finally, an Air Force report stated that “there was no indication in official records from the [1947] period that there was heightened military operational or security activity which should have been generated if this was, in fact, the first recovery of materials and/or persons from another world.” The GAO probe, released in 1995, reported much the same conclusion. The Air Force tried to pass off the small bodies as being from experiments conducted in the 1950s that involved dropping dummies from high-altitude balloons to study the results of the impact. Witnesses’ descriptions of the “aliens” closely match the characteristics of the dummies.

Even the cynically minded of the national press corps scoffed at yet another botched attempt to avoid the inevitable owning up that the US authorities lied in 1947 — and have continued to do so ever since. As in the Watergate conspiracy, once lies are told, it is impossible to keep the lid on without a continuing campaign of deceit and the eventual consequences.

After several botched attempts were made by the Air Force to conceal this UFO crash event, the official position was total denial. Yet, subsequent investigations and evidence point clearly to the fact that something from another planet crashed on our planet's surface. With their “reptile brains” fully engaged, the U.S. authorities made the decision for all mankind that the official response to extraterrestrial interaction would be hostile; it would take two generations of our global populations to discover the truth.

UFOs and extraterrestrials in the later part of the twentieth century are the two most talked about, filmed, and reported  subjects. Those early days preceding the 1947 Roswell crash must have convinced our visitors that we are a strange and hostile race of people. An educated guess would posit that their need to visit our planet was provoked by the 1945 atomic explosions and their concern based on the universe law of cause and effect. It must have appeared to these creatures that the immature children of planet earth, not content with waging war among themselves using machinery and conventional weapons, would resort to unleashing a universe energy known as nuclear fission upon their own kind. This barbarous and savage act must have brought our planet to their attention.

Because there exists a nonintervention law  based on the “free will” of a planet’s intelligent species, the visitors' presence here could only be to monitor our insanity. The political and military response, based on reptilian thinking, was one of aggression toward the visitors and denial toward the masses. Notwithstanding the "problems" they assumed would arise once the masses were cognizant of extraterrestrial life, this aggressive and denial response would set our evolution back by many decades.

(This nonintervention law is similar to Gene Roddenberry’s “prime directive” which he portrayed in his Star Trek television series. It is believed by many that much of the Roddenberry’s conceptual detail came from secret and inspired contact with the celestial world (angels). Of course, it is impossible to prove this; however, every scientist on this planet when viewing the night sky, atheist or not, will admit to the fact that the celestial array is based on a complicated mathematical arrangement. And therefore, there must be in existence a “Master Mathematician" — God. Even the most rigorous researcher, in accepting the existence of a "nonintervention law," eventually must conclude that the universe is governed by a code of sublime laws that could never have arisen by chance.)

The reptilian fear-based response that would be the official reaction to the Roswell incident for decades was not only typical and expected, it would prove in the long run to be futile. The following generations of committed investigators from all walks of life would eventually unearth this massive conspiracy, this “cosmic Watergate.” The U.S. government would run this conspiracy for most of the twentieth century in a desperate effort to avoid telling its citizens the truth — that it could not defend itself against other planets and that the perceived power of government and authority was but a vague shadow hanging over us all, enabling the reptile-minded to lord it over the masses. This futile attempt at conspiracy and subterfuge would eventually be exposed. The notion that an all-powerful government could usurp the basic freedom and liberty afforded all men by our Creator was a cruel deception and against the will of God.

This deceit and denial has unfortunate long-term ramifications for the authorities — the more it is prolonged, the harder it will eventually be to tell the truth. Apart from the enormous damage that has been done to the public’s perception of the credibility of authority, this breach of trust runs counter to the notion that a government should serve the people, not the other way around. The longer this “Cosmic Watergate” continues, the worse off we are as a species. And time is running out. As our governments move us closer toward a suicidal end, the cover-ups and grabs for control and power increase as the truth is obliterated by daily sound bites.

Any civilized species that posits the question, “Could life exist elsewhere in the universe?” can quickly summon an answer by simply looking up. As previously discussed, even the most ardent atheists have great difficulty viewing the night sky and explaining away the endless arithmetical equations by which it is arranged. They quickly realize a higher intelligence would be required to develop the quantum physics necessary for the billions upon billions of stars (which are actual suns) twinkling in the dome above our heads. Based on our solar system alone — our sun at the center surrounded by orbiting planets, with one of these planets inhabited by intelligent beings —  many astronomical physicists have conjectured that the universe is literally teeming with life. Denial of extraterrestrial life and a Creator is the response of an arrogant inward-looking species that regards the universe as a mechanism and thinks of humans as mere machines mass-produced by chance. Most so-called atheistic scientists while agreeing the universe is, after all, based on mathematical equations, continue to deny the existence of a “Master Mathematician.” It's a contradiction that most mortals of the realm easily grasp as they view the glory and perfection of the “Master Mathematician’s” work.

The Marshall Plan

As the world recovered from World War II, the unlooked-for harvest of further wars and atrocities began to surface, as mankind quickly chose to forget history and settle down to the soft and comfortable life of the modern West. It was what would become known as the “baby boomer” era. An urgent rush to procreation was the natural response by partly civilized mortals, repulsed and numbed by the horror of the past decade — or perhaps because the gene pool had been so heavily eradicated by two wars. Still, the modern-thinking human was still listening to the voices of a demanding reptile and a chattering ancient mammal. Both were speaking to us from the depths of our own skulls.

With the onset of the baby boomer era, Western societies quickly returned to the comfortable lifestyle of mass consumerism, fueled by the invigorating financial benefits of the U.S.-inspired Marshall Plan. The Marshall Plan, formally known as the European Recovery Program, was a program of U.S. economic and technical assistance to sixteen European countries after World War II. Its objectives were to restore the war-ravaged west European economy and to stimulate economic growth and trade among the major non-communist countries.

In early 1947, as the cold war between the United States and the USSR dawned, U.S. policy-makers concluded that western Europe would require substantial economic aid to attain political stability. This program, announced by Secretary of State George C. Marshall (1880-1959) in an address at Harvard University on June 5, 1947, proposed that the European countries draw up a unified plan for economic reconstruction to be funded by the United States. The USSR and other countries of Eastern Europe were invited to join, but they declined. The Economic Cooperation Administration was established by the United States to administer the plan. The sixteen west European countries then formed the Organization for European Economic Cooperation to coordinate the program.

From 1948 to 1952, the sixteen participating countries received 13.15 billion dollars in U.S. aid. The program succeeded in reviving the West European economy and setting it on the path of long-term growth. Germany, Japan and all of the non-Iron-Curtain nations began to prosper. Science and technology took on a new meaning with the emergence of Dwight D. Eisenhower’s famous speech, when the world heard for the first time the term, “Industrial Military Complex.” This emerging power base of industrialists and the capitalist elite would frame the history of the latter part of the twentieth century. New levels of materialism, fueled by greed and power lust would be achieved. The world as it had been known would change dramatically as science and technology would catapult both the Iron Curtain countries and the west into the “Cold War.”

With the shadow of planetary annihilation hanging over global societies, all governments took on a paternal role to fill the void created by the secular revolt, which by now was in full cry. In the Eastern Bloc communist countries, which by now had coalesced in Europe and was embryonic in Asia, the totalitarian state had replaced God. In the West, with the daily fear of atomic annihilation hanging over their heads, a different sort of totalitarian state was manifesting.

This world order was the governmental response to the void created by secular revolt and atheistic science, and would continue to manifest in its totalitarian state, as the weak-minded of this era espousing Marxist philosophy found their way into politics, religion and social service. Readers will recall that the seeds of this new breed of socialism were sown in the early part of the century. By now, with a greater portion of the sacrificed stronger-minded individuals buried in unmarked graves throughout Europe and the Pacific, the weak-minded of the more liberal thinkers held sway.

The totalitarian state emerged swiftly as the lawyers, imbued with knowledge and devoid of wisdom, framed legislation in response to politicians’ urgent requirement to solve all problems for society. This urgent rush to replace family and community with a centralized totalitarian government would prove to be not only socially suicidal, but also financially bankrupting. All of the financial gain Roosevelt had cunningly gouged from Churchill would be squandered by Democrat-controlled U.S. Congress. The liberals of the world would continue this social plunge into indebtedness and dependency until all vestiges of freedom and liberty, as set out in the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights, had disappeared from the political horizon.

China

During this transition period in the middle part of our century, there emerged in the 1950s a new war, the Korean War, fought between two ideologies — communism and capitalism — the basis for the “Cold War.” The sleeping giant through the latter half to the close of this century was China.

Mao Zedong, or Mao Tse-tung (1893-1976), was born into a well-to-do peasant family in Shaoshan, Hunan province. As a child, he worked in the fields and attended a local primary school, where he studied the traditional Confucian classics. He was frequently in conflict with his strict father whom Mao learned successfully to confront, with the support of his gentle and devoutly Buddhist mother. Beginning in 1911, the year the republican forces of Sun Yat-sen launched the overthrow of the Qing (Ch'ing, or Manchu) dynasty, Mao spent most of ten years in the provincial capital. He was exposed to the tides of rapid political change and the new culture movement then sweeping the country. He served briefly in the republican army and then spent half a year studying alone in the provincial library, an experience that reinforced his habit of independent study.

By 1918, Mao had graduated from the Hunan First Normal School and had gone to Beijing (Peking), the national capital, where he worked briefly as a library assistant at Beijing University. Mao lacked the funds to support a regular student status and, unlike many of his classmates, mastered no foreign language and did not study abroad. It may be partly due to his relative poverty during his student years that he never identified completely with the cosmopolitan bourgeois intellectuals who dominated Chinese university life. He did establish contact with intellectual radicals who later figured prominently in the Chinese Communist party. In 1919, Mao returned to Hunan, where he engaged in radical political activity while supporting himself as a primary-school principal. At this stage, his writings revealed the influence of Marx.

When the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) was organized in Shanghai in 1921, Mao was a founding member and leader of the Hunan branch. He was one of the twelve original members of the Chinese Communist Party then engaged in the organizing of mine workers. His ideology and philosophy was deeply rooted in Marx’s Communist Manifesto. At this stage, the new party formed a united front with the Kuomintang (Guomindang), the party of the republican followers of Sun Yat-sen. Mao worked within the united front in Shanghai, Hunan, and Guangzhou (Canton), concentrating variously on labor organization, party organization, propaganda, and the Peasant Movement Training Institute. His 1927  “Report on the Peasant Movement in Hunan” expressed his view of the revolutionary potential of the peasantry.

In 1927, Chiang Kai-shek, who had gained control of the Kuomintang after the death of Sun Yat-sen, reversed that party's policy of cooperation with the communists. By the next year, when he had control of the Nationalist armies as well as the Nationalist government, Chiang purged all communists from the movement. Mao was forced to flee to the mountains of south China, where he established with Zhu De (Chu Teh) a rural base defended by a guerrilla army. It was this almost accidental fusion of communist leadership with a guerrilla force operating in rural areas with peasant support that was to make Mao the leader of the CCP.

Because of their growing military power, Mao and Zhu were able by 1930 to defy orders of the Russian-controlled CCP leadership that directed them to capture cities. In the following year, despite the fact that his position in the party was weak and his policies were criticized, a Chinese soviet was founded in Jiangsu (Kiangsi) province, with Mao as chairman. A series of extermination campaigns by Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist government forced the CCP to abandon this base in October 1934 and to commence the Long March. At Zunyi (Tsun-i) in Guizhou (Kweichow), Mao for the first time gained effective control over the CCP, ending the era of Russian direction of party leadership. Remnants of the communist forces reached Shaanxi (Shensi) in October 1935, after a march of 10,000 kilometers (6,000 miles). They then established a new party headquarters at Yenan.

When the Japanese invasion of 1937 forced the CCP and the Kuomintang once again to form a united front, the communists gained legitimacy as defenders of the Chinese homeland, and Mao rose in stature as a national leader. During this period he established himself as a military theorist and, through the publication in 1937 of such essays as “On
Contradiction” and “On Practice,” laid claim to recognition as an important Marxist thinker. Mao's essay “On New Democracy”  in 1940 outlined a unique national form of Marxism appropriate to China; his “Talks at the Yenan Forum on Literature and Art” in 1942 provided a basis for party control over cultural affairs.

The soundness of Mao’s self-reliance and rural guerrilla strategies was proved by the CCP’s rapid growth during the Yenan period from 40,000 members in 1937 to 1,200,000 members in 1945. The shaky truce between the communists and nationalists was broken at the end of the war. Efforts were made by the United States, in particular to forge a coalition government. Civil war erupted, however, and the years 1946 through 1949 saw the rapid defeat of the Kuomintang. Chiang's government was forced to flee to Taiwan, leaving the Peoples Republic of China, formed by the Communists in late 1949, in control of the entire Chinese mainland. Mao became head of state of the new Peoples Republic in 1949.

When Mao’s efforts to open relations with the United States in the late 1940s were rebuffed, he concluded that China would have to “lean to one side,” and a period of close alliance with the USSR followed. Mao’s fear that a U.S. victory in Korea would threaten China contributed to China's entry into the Korean War. During the early 1950s, Mao served as chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, chief of state, and chairman of the military commission. His international status as a Marxist leader rose after the death of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in 1953.

Mao’s uniqueness as a leader is evident from his commitment to continued class struggle under socialism, a view confirmed in his theoretical treatise “On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People,” written in 1957. Dissatisfaction with the slowness of development, the loss of revolutionary momentum in the countryside, and the tendency for CCP members to behave like a privileged class led Mao to take a number of unusual initiatives in the late 1950s. In the Hundred Flowers movement of 1956 and 1957, he encouraged intellectuals to make constructive criticism of the party’s stewardship. When the criticism came, it revealed deep hostility to CCP leadership. At about the same time, Mao accelerated the transformation of rural ownership by calling for the elimination of the last vestiges of rural private property and the formation of people’s communes, and for the initiation of rapid industrial growth through a program known as the Great Leap Forward. The suddenness of these moves led to administrative confusion and popular resistance. Furthermore, adverse weather conditions resulted in disastrous crop shortfalls and severe food shortages. All these reverses cost Mao his position as chief of state, and his influence over the party was severely curtailed. It was also during the late 1950s that Mao’s government began to reveal its deep-seated differences with the USSR.

During the 1960s, Mao made a comeback. Several failed communist experiments in the 1950s, including the Commune Movement (1958) and the Great Leap Forward (1958 to 1959), culminated in his launching the Cultural Revolution in 1966. The ensuing chaos and blood-letting of this despicable act irradiated an estimated 70 million Chinese citizens. The population of Communist China would continue to revere this reptilian-minded beast. He attacked the party leadership and the new chief of state, Liu Shaoqi (Liu Shao-ch’i), through a Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, which peaked from 1966 to 1969. The Cultural Revolution was largely orchestrated by Mao’s wife, Jiang Qing. It was perhaps Mao's greatest innovation and was essentially an ideological struggle for public opinion carried out in the form of a frantic national debate.

Mao proved to be a master tactician. When he could not get his ideas across in the Beijing press, he used the Shanghai press to attack the Beijing leadership. Students, mobilized as “Red Guards,” became his most avid supporters. As tensions mounted and events threatened to get out of hand, Mao was obliged to rely increasingly on the military, under the leadership of Lin Biao (Lin Piao). In return for this military support, the party named Lin as Mao’s successor in its 1969 constitution. By 1971, however, Lin was reported to have died in a plane crash after having plotted to assassinate Mao, and Mao was once more firmly in control.

On the popular level, the thrust of the Cultural Revolution was to teach the Chinese masses that it was “right to revolt”, that it was their privilege to criticize those in positions of authority and to take an active part in decision-making. During the Cultural Revolution, Mao’s sayings, printed in a little red book, and buttons bearing his image were distributed to the masses; his word was treated as an ultimate authority and his person the subject of ecstatic adulation. Despite this temporary assumption of an authority higher than the CCP, Mao continued to state his belief in the Leninist notion of collective party leadership. He showed his opposition to the “personality cult” by explicitly asking that the number of statues sculpted in his likeness be reduced.

Cold War Outcomes

The Korean War, justified in ideological terms, would be just one of many of the new era savage wars using killing machines produced by the Industrial Military Complex, which had mobilized on both sides of the ideologically inspired Cold War. The industrial military complex describes the link between the Defense Department and a permanent peacetime arms industry that enables those groups to wield extraordinary political and economic power. The term was coined by Eisenhower in his farewell address of 1961, when he warned of the threat it posed to democracy. This Cold War era lasted until 1989, whereupon it abruptly dissipated. The end of the Cold War largely ended the peacetime arms buildup in the U.S., and caused the contraction of the nation’s arms industry, temporarily diminishing the power of the military-industrial complex.

During the forty years of the Cold War, both sides of the ideological struggle ignored the rights of citizens. Under two different guises of totalitarian-styled government, they constructed covert intelligence agencies and assets that would become laws unto themselves. The United States quickly adapted to this new form of secret government. New acronyms, such as CIA, NSA, and FBI, were coined, creating an aura of authenticity and legitimacy for agencies that actually formed the totalitarian state's center for western power. Each nation, large or small, would follow suit with its own brand of secret intelligence police forces. This era of secret government totally abdicated any notion of government by the people, for the people and of the people, replacing it with government of the people for the government. The virtues of the Constitution of the United States of America and other so-called western democracies were usurped and abandoned during the Cold War. Naturally, all lawyers and politicians who framed and enacted a monolith of legislation during this period would justify it based either on skewed ideology or the hollow excuse of national sovereignty and security.

What began at the turn of the century as a benign ideological shift in consciousness blossomed into the mutative forms of socialism and social democracy, which would go so far as to almost destroy societies and civilization as a whole. The world’s population — bursting to overflowing, straining at the seams to find food and water to sustain 6 billion people — simply caved in to these twisted notions that we must be controlled in order to survive and prosper. George Orwell’s classic "Nineteen Eighty Four" portrayed a horrifying future where tyrants secure their totalitarian power with technology. Primary weapon: the tele-screen that, installed in each citizen's house, could somehow see everything, hear everything, and issue propaganda and commands. Orwell coined scary phrases which entered the language: Big Brother, Thought Police, Newspeak and Doublethink. Orwell’s world was becoming more the accepted mindset than those who scoffed at the possibility would have imagined.

For all those readers who simply accept “that’s the way it is,” read on. The new idioms and sayings of the latter part of the twentieth century would emerge and begin to mold our thinking into the mindset of the Marxist-inspired socialism based on the Communist Manifesto. New methods of mass indoctrination and brainwashing would be introduced by both intelligence forces on either side of the Iron Curtain. With the advent of television, this brainwashing became very easy in the West. Of course, just plain terror did the job in the communist regimes.

The Reptile Brain

Before we embark on a new chapter of the twentieth century, let us review Howard Bloom’s theory of the three brains of the modern hominid as it is discussed in his book "The Lucifer Principle."

As discussed previously, Dr. Paul MacLean was the researcher who first posited the concept of the “triune brain.” According to MacLean, near the base of a human skull is the stem of the brain, poking up from the spinal column like the unadorned end of a walking stick. Sticking atop that rudimentary setup is a mass of cerebral tissue bequeathed us by our earliest totally land-dwelling ancestors, the reptiles. When these beasts turned their backs on the sea roughly three hundred million years ago and hobbled inland, their primary focus was simple survival. The new landlubbers needed to hunt, to find a mate, to carve out territory, and to fight in that territory’s defense. The neural machinery they evolved took care of these elementary functions. MacLean calls it the “reptile brain.” The reptile brain still sits inside our skull like the pit at the center of a peach. It is a vigorous participant in our mental affairs, pumping its primitive, instinctual orders to us at all hours of the day and night (Bloom, pages 25-26).

Bloom goes on to explain how evolution evolved these land dwellers into warm-blooded, furry creatures that forced their mothers to take care of their young. This necessitated that a “few additions be built into the old reptilian brain” (Bloom, page 26):

"Nature complied by constructing an envelope of new neural tissue that surrounded the reptile brain like a peach’s juicy fruit enveloping the pit. MacLean called the add-in the “mammalian brain.” The mammalian brain guided play, maternal behavior, and a host of other emotions. It kept our furry ancestors knitted together in nurturing gangs.

Far down the winding path of time, a few of our hirsute progenitors tried something new. They stood on their hind legs, looked around them, and applied their minds and hands to the exploitation of the world. These were the early hominids. But protohuman aspirations were impractical without the construction of another brain accessory. Nature complied, wrapping a thin layer of fresh neural substance around the old cortical standbys — thereptilian and mammalian brains. The new structure, stretched around the old ones like a peach’s skin, was the neocortex —theprimate brain. The primate brain, which includes the human brain, had awesome powers. It could envision the future. It could weigh a possible action and imagine the consequences. It could support the development of language, reason, and culture. But theneocortex had a drawback: it was merely a thin veneer over the two ancient brains. And those were as active as ever, measuring every bit of input from the eyes and ears, and issuing fresh orders. The thinking human, no matter how exalted his sentiments, was still listening to the voices of a demanding reptile and a chattering ancient mammal. Both were speaking to him from the depths of his own skull." (Bloom, pages 26-27)

If we accept this theory as being scientifically provable, and Bloom certainly posits a case for it being so, then we must in all conscience seek to discover why man’s inhumanity to man continues to be a blight not only on our past and present but also our future evolution. For if we as a people can begin to enter into even a shadowy understanding of who we are and why we are, we have an excellent chance of reversing the current trends and setting a new course toward peace on earth.

A Failed Peace

As the League of Nations of post World War I failed, so would the United Nations of post World War II fail and miserably so. War is not man’s great terrible disease;  war is a symptom, a result. The real disease is the virus of national sovereignty. This national sovereignty virus is spread amongst the people of various nations by greedy and power-lusting political leaders, who having recognized the controlling influence of this ideology, have unconscionably manipulated succeeding generations of unsuspecting nationalists to accept the idea that wars are just.

The “just war” argument is perpetuated by nations that have never actually possessed real sovereignty;  that is to say, sovereignty that could protect them from the ravages and devastation of world wars. By creating a representative global government of mankind, the nations would not give up sovereignty so much as they would create a real, bona fide, and lasting world sovereignty that would henceforth protect them from all war. Local affairs could be handled by local governments; national affairs, by national governments; international affairs could be administered by global government.

It is important to understand that by "representative world government," I am not referring to the Luciferian "new world order" now receiving such a push by world banks and other greedy international interests. I am referring to truly representative government on a planetary scale. I am referring to government that recognizes the sovereignty of God over all humankind as well as the sovereignty of the individual person in his relationship with God.

World peace cannot be maintained by treaties, diplomacy, foreign policies, alliances, balances of power, or any other type of makeshift juggling with the sovereignties of nationalism. World law must come into being and must be enforced by representative world government — protecting the sovereignty of all mankind.

The individual will enjoy far more liberty under representative world government. Today, the citizens of the great powers are taxed, regulated, and controlled almost oppressively, and much of this present interference with individual liberties would vanish when the national governments are willing to trustee their sovereignty as regards international affairs into the hands of representative global government.

Under representative global government, the national groups would be afforded a real opportunity to realize and enjoy the personal liberties of genuine democracy. The fallacy of national self-determination would end. With global regulations of money and trade would come a new era of worldwide peace. A global language could evolve, and there would be at least some hope of religions with a global viewpoint. Collective security will never afford peace until the collectivity includes all mankind. The political sovereignty of representative mankind government will bring lasting peace on earth, and the spiritual brotherhood of man will forever ensure good will among all men. And there is no other way that peace on earth and good will among men can be realized.

The decade immediately following the end of the World War II proved to be crucial in how civilization would evolve or devolve. The world power mindset was militaristic. Having just fought another “just war,” both the Western and Eastern powers were in war mode — that is to say, the Industrial Military Complex was. The civilian population was sufficiently repulsed by the atrocities to want to forget and move on. The Cold War would ensure that there would be progress; however, it would be through preparedness for war not peace. Immediately after the so-called "success" of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima atomic bombs, the Industrial Military Complex would shape our future after their twisted and perverted designs.

Not content with atomic weapons of mass destruction, the atheist scientists went on to develop hydrogen bombs which would dwarf the destructive power of the atomic weapons and release a new terror on humanity. Fear and apathy in the West allowed this to happen; totalitarian communism allowed a parallel terror to arise in the East. The seeds were sown for nuclear holocaust. It is not a question of “if”  but “when.”

The United Nations, like its predecessor the League of Nations, was destined to fail. National sovereignty would again become the main stumbling block for this idealistic solution to war and oppression. In fact, influence by the emerging secular humanist mindset would create circumstances whereby this once idealistic grouping of nations would come to do more harm than good, bankrupting itself both morally and financially along the way.

Western-style governments have promulgated the notion that citizens are born for the exclusive benefit of governments. Such governments have completely turned their backs on the reality that they were created and devised for the benefit of mankind. Until truly representative global government emerges from the carnage and despair of the past century, wars will become more and more devastating — until they are almost racially suicidal.

How many world and regional wars must be fought and how many Leagues of Nations and United Nations must fail before human beings will be willing to establish the government of mankind? How many bombs must be dropped before our species can begin to enjoy the blessings of permanent peace and thrive on the tranquility of good will — worldwide good will — among all human beings?

The civilian population of the world lost all hope and turned away from God. The churches of Christianity had over the ages become sect-divided, entering into unholy alliances with the state in the West. In communist regimes, they had simply been neutralized and forced underground. The soil of human desperation worldwide was well prepared for the state to replace God. The secular revolt had done its job and worldwide secularism would emerge as the new religion. Religious practice would become a token religion worship of God and the teachings of Jesus would be submerged under the fundamentalism of all religions and their leaders as fear and remorse seized the global population in the west and secular humanism flourished in the east. In both communism and capitalism and all intervening systems, the state would eventually seek to replace God by marginalizing the individual rights into a collective system of socialism.

Meanwhile capitalism, whose new ally was materialism and the Industrial Military Complex, continued to greedily maneuver the enemy — socialism and unionism — into a suicidal position. The more the socialist-unionist movement gained ground,  the more the capitalists coalesced into huge monolithic corporations that would eventually eclipse government itself. The “profit motive” reigned supreme all the way through the balance of the twentieth century. Communism and capitalism both fed voraciously off of materialism, while the masses just went along, their rights spirited away in the west and had long gone in the east. Political leaders on both sides of the Cold War had their sights set on domination of the opposition, using military might as their weapon. Virtues were basically abandoned as each side craved victory at any cost. The civilian population in the west, feeding off the new-found prosperity of capitalism, remained apathetic — whatever the state dictated was readily accepted. Whatever the state [god] dictated was fine, provided the state provided all to its citizens. This ideology would eventually be established in western democracies as social democrats gradually won over the minds of the majority.

So we see the sophistries of secularism, materialism, and atheistic science beginning to triumph over humankind. Much more devastation and human suffering would occur as the folly of this worldwide mindset took hold of the latter half of the twentieth century. Political ideologues on both sides of the Cold War quickly recognized the power of propaganda — and were keen to use television as a decisive tool in the indoctrination and brainwashing so necessary for the Cold War mentality to prosper.

As science confronted conventional religions worldwide, continually disproving the mythical stories of ancient history, the civilian population became confused. People either opted out of religious tradition or turned to fundamentalism. This harvest of human despair would come full circle as we shall see in future chapters.

We can now see, in the aftermath of the 1947 Roswell crash, why our nearby neighbors would wish to monitor and even interact with our civilization. With the advent of nuclear weapons, we had not only become a threat to our planet but also to them. The universe law of cause and effect has come into play. Any reader who sincerely believes the UFO/ET phenomenon is just a “conspiracy theory” would be wise to read extensively on the subject before making a final determination. We shall see in future chapters the reason for “Cosmic Watergate.” Suffice to say that history is eventually the only test of truth or fiction. With the benefit of hindsight and factual evidence not necessarily available previously, historians will eventually piece together this paradigm shifting event in Roswell, New Mexico.

The solution of representative global government will be dealt with in future chapters; however, the essential key must first be recognized. This key is true political leadership, both at the national level, then coalesced at the global level. Knowledge is not enough; ideas without idealism is a fallacy. True wisdom gained through the experience of living through a wide range of human endeavor is the only prerequisite for leadership. Virtues emanating from this experience — principles, ethics, morals, and values — are essential. Take a quick look at the worldwide political leadership and ask yourself, "Would I want him or her to be part of a global government?"

The reader very quickly realizes the problem that lies ahead.

Chapter 6

Knowledge Without Wisdom